Artist Credit
Leroy Carr Composer
Jack Casady Arranger, Bass, Bass Instrument, Member of Attributed Artist, Vocals
Mike Frankel Photography
Mike Hartry Mixing, Transfers
Hot Tuna Primary Artist
Pat Ieraci Machines
Jorma Kaukonen Arranger, Composer, Guitar, Guitar (Acoustic), Member of Attributed Artist, Vocals
Margareta Kaukonen Art Direction, Paintings
Bill Lacey Restoration
Joe Lopes Digital Engineer
Jelly Roll Morton Composer
Will Scarlett Harmonica
Al Schmitt Audio Production, Original Session Producer, Producer
John Snyder Digital Producer
Jeff Tamarkin Liner Notes
Traditional Composer
Don Wardell Coordination, Digital Series Coordination
Paul Williams Supervisor
Alan Zentz Audio Engineer
Allen Zentz Engineer

When Hot Tuna’s self-titled debut album was released in May 1970, it seemed like the perfect spin-off project for a major rock group, Jefferson Airplane’s lead guitarist and bass player indulging in a genre exercise by playing a set of old folk-blues tunes in a Berkeley coffeehouse. The music seemed as far removed from the Airplane’s acid rock roar as it did from commercial prospects, and thus, it allowed these sometimes overlooked bandmembers to blow off some steam musically without threatening their day jobs. In retrospect, however, it’s easy to hear that something more was going on. Friends since their teens, Jorma Kaukonen and Jack Casady had developed a musical rapport that anchored the Airplane sound but also existed independently of it, and shorn of the rock band arrangements and much of the electricity (Casady still played an electric bass), their interplay was all the more apparent. Kaukonen remained the accomplished fingerpicking stylist he had been before joining the Airplane, while Casady dispensed with the usual timekeeping duties of the bass in favor of extensive contrapuntal soloing, creating a musical conversation that was unique. It was put at the service of a batch of songs by the likes of the Reverend Gary Davis and Jelly Roll Morton with the occasional Kaukonen original thrown in, making for a distinct style. Kaukonen’s wry singing showed an intense identification with the material that kept it from seeming repetitious despite the essential similarities of the tunes. (Harmonica player Will Scarlett also contributed to the mood.) The result was less an indulgence than a new direction.

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